ECONOMIC BOTANY i.e. BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE….
Hey!freinds as all of you know that biology is defined as tha study of living organism i.e. the organism that can breath,grow and reproduce periodically.plants are very important and very useful for us and for our environment.
The branch of botany which deals with the application of plants and plant products to the welfare of mankind is called economic botany.The basic needs of human life viz,food,clothing and shelter,are fulfilled to a greater extent by plants,they also provide other valuable products like wood,fibres,drugs,tannins,dyes,scents,paper,sugar,starch,gum,resin,rubber,essention oil,fats,tobacco,tea,coffee,spices,cork etc………….
There are certain lower and also higher plants that help to obtain important product…some food items and some medicines,which is very helpful for humans,all of them come from plants…………
SOME PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM LOWER PLANTS ARE GIVEN BELOW…..
(1) Curd:It is a fermented product of milk,used as dairy product.Process of curd making is called curdling.The white solid portion of curd is coagulated milk protein,casein.The watery fluid seperated out during curd formation is called “whey”.The bacteria responsible for making curd from milk is Lactobacillus i.e.L.bulgaricus,L.lactis and streptococcus.
(2) CHEESE:Preperation of cheese involves two main steps:first curdling of milk,and second subsequent ripening of solid curd.Ripening process involves action of microorganism.Different varities of cheese are prepared by the use of different bactrial strain.
(3) CREAM:It is prepared by continous stirring of whole milk so that the fat content are seperated.sweet cream is prepared by the action of bacteria LEUCONOSTOC CITRIVO,which produce butter aroma.The sour cream is prepared by the action of lactic acid bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS LACTIS and LEUCONOSTOC CITRIVORUMARE.
(3) BUTTER:It is prepared by churning of sweet and sour cream.The microorganism responsibe for preparation of butter cream are STREPTOCOCCUS LACTIS.
(4) VINEGAR: Country made vinegar is a fermentation product of cane juice,molasses or fruit juices.Vinegar prodution involves two main steps:fisrt conversion of sugar into alchohol by alchoholic fermentation,, and second alchohol to accetic acid by the action of bacteria ACETOBACTER.Vinegar contains about 40% acetic acid and small quantities of alchohol,glycerol,ester,sugar and salts.
ANTIBIOTICS THAT COME FROM BACTERIA ARE:antibiotics are substances that produced by living miccroorganisms having power of destroying microbes.They are used for controlling various infectious diseas.
SOME COMMON ANTIBIOTICS ARE:Tetraclclines,streptomycin,neomycin,erythromycin,chloramphenicol etcc……………